The Use of Latest Medical Technology and Taking Benefits from Technology to Treat Various Medical Diseases Including Covid-19 in the Current Pandemic

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: The main Aim of this article is to show the Importance and role of medical sciences to save lives of mankind from Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases including current COVID-19 Pandemic. This Article includes various Articles references discussing the Diseases such as Hypertension, Diabetes, Cancer, Tuberculosis, Avian Flu and COVID-19.
Methods: The Author of this article has randomly selected 15 Articles from PUBMED, Other Different Medical Sciences Journals with the word using “medical sciences to save lives of mankind”. The Author relies on Conceptual Literature Review for the Methodology of this article. Where the groups of Articles are reviewed and analyzed to find out the answer of the Question “Study favors or Ignores role of medical sciences to save lives of mankind from Communicable and Non- Communicable Diseases including current COVID-19 Pandemic”. The Table 1 is created to Analyze the 15 randomly selected Articles and the results has been presented By SPSS software diagrammatic presentation.
Results: Author of this Article has used SPSS 19 Software to present the results. First SPSS Diagram shows that All selected 15 Articles favors the Importance of role of medical sciences to save lives of mankind from Communicable and Non- Communicable Diseases including current COVID-19. The Second SPSS Diagram shows that 15 Articles agreed 100% for the Importance of role of medical sciences to save lives of mankind from Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases including current COVID-19.
Conclusion: This Article teaches us the lesson that Technology in Medical Sciences and Inventions, Discovery of new Medicines and Surgical Instruments are Blessings for Mankind. Latest Technologies such as MRI Scans, CT Scans, Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy, Nuclear Technology, X rays/ Ultrasound, Latest Laparoscopic surgery, Endoscopy, Angioplasty others are treating more ill patients than ever before. But more Medical research is needed to find the Treatment for COVID-19 Pandemic, Ebola, MERS, Avian Influenza, Swine Flu and other Viral diseases. Urgent research institutes needed to build up for the discovery of new Vaccines when needed in times of COVID-19 Pandemic.

KEYWORDS

ACE inhibitors; ARBs; Actemra; Advil; HIV; Kaletra; Kevzara; Motrin; NSAIDs; Plaquenil; Tylenol; Acetaminophen; Adverse effects; Angiotensin receptor blockers; Antiretrovirals; Azithromycin; Chloroquine; Coronavirus; Corticosteroids; Hydroxychloroquine; Ibuprofen; Lopinavir; Oseltamivir; Remdesivir; Ribavirin; Ritonavir; Sarilumab; Tocilizumab; Dengue; Silymarin; Liver function tests

INTRODUCTION

WHO chose an experimental Kupferschmidt [1] antiviral called remdesivir the malaria medication chloroquine or its chemical cousin hydroxychloroquine a combination of the HIV drugs lopinavir and ritonavir and that combination plus interferon-beta an immune system messenger that can help cripple viruses? The treatments would stop the virus by different mechanisms, but each has drawbacks. Remdesivir developed by Gilead Sciences to combat Ebola and related viruses shuts down viral Kupferschmidt [1] replication by inhibiting a key viral enzyme the RNA polymerase.

Recently the Dutch Jeroen [2] National Institute for Public Health and the Environment published treatment options for antiviral treatment for COVID-19 where chloroquine was suggested as first choice for off-label treatment beside remdesivir lopinavir/ ritonavir. In this commentary we provide a background and history of chloroquine the evidence for antiviral efficacy of chloroquine and the arguments for off-label use of Jeroen [2] chloroquine in COVID-19. Current Pandemic of COVID-19 Siddiqui [3] has taught us that we in the twenty first century is not ready to provide health care to vulnerable community such as elders children and sick people with chronic illness. Such vulnerable people with bad health and low socio-economic status are more prone to get effected by COVID-19 novel corona virus. More serious work needed to be done by Global health agencies and world organizations such as WHO, CDC, UN, UNESCO, UNHCR others. Governments and health departments has to make useful health policies to implement in deadlines with serious accountability Siddiqui [3] to fight against any Epidemic or Pandemic (Figure1).

Despite the urgent need to find Serap [4] an effective antiviral treatment for COVID-19 through randomized controlled studies certain agents are being used all over the world based on either in-vitro or extrapolated evidence or observational studies. The most frequently used agents both in Turkey and all over the world including chloroquine hydroxychloroquine lopinavir/ritonavir favipiravir and remdesivir will be reviewed here. Nitazoxanide and ivermectin were also included in this review as they have recently been reported to have an activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and are licensed for the Serap [4] treatment of some other human infections.

The objective is to investigate Ahsan [5] and find out after reviewing 23 referenced News articles and published papers to gather evidence that novel corona virus COVID-19 was accidentally leaked in the community. Eight Published Newspaper Articles were carefully selected to find out the documentary and visual evidence that novel corona virus COVID-19 was accidentally leaked from the Wuhan research Laboratory in China. Upon reviewing the carefully selected 8 News Articles only two articles provide the picture and documented evidence that may be accidentally in the Wuhan laboratory the studied novel Ahsan [5] corona virus got out of laboratory.

Global Health and other organizations A Siddiqui [6] such as WHO, UNHCR, UN, UNESCO, UNICEF did not act fast to Prevent and Control the COVID-19 Pandemic. Other Governments of the countries in the world act very slowly for the warnings given by WHO and other scientists. Later since November 2019 till now approximately 350,000 people have lost their lives due to COVID-19 and approximately 5 Million people are infected by this COVID-19 disease. The vaccine of COVID-19 is under development and there is not exact A Siddiqui [6] treatment for COVID-19 by medical sciences till now (Figure 2).

A cross-sectional study was carried Sarfraz [7] out in the OPDOut Patient Department of a secondary care hospital of Karachi among patients with self-reported history of hypertension and on anti-hypertensive medication. A total of 292 patients aged 18 or above were included in the study by convenient sampling for the duration of 6 months from January 2018 till July 2018. A randomized controlled trial was Momin [8] conducted Ziauddin hospital Clifton Karachi. The laboratory parameters utilized to measure liver function were serum levels of direct and indirect bilirubin alanine amino transferase gamma glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase. Furthermore, symptomatologic improvement with Momin [8] the treatment of Silymarin in dengue patients could not be established.

To compare the clinical Imtiaz [9] signs and symptoms of dengue across gender and age-based groups. The study results showed that rash p=0.047 and infected conjunctiva p=0.013 were significantly associated with gender of the patients whereas nausea and vomiting (p=0.01), headache (p=0.016), retro-orbital pain (p=0.049) and This study predicted that Khurram [11] there is difference in electrolyte levels before and after chemotherapy in cancer patients. This can prevent secondary impairment in cancer patients already undergoing chemotherapy. The total duration for which chemotherapy was given to patients was 5.98 ±2.36 days. The levels of sodium after chemotherapy Khurram [11] with its duration showed no significant correlation p-value=0.570, r = -0.036.

METHODS

The Author of this Article has done Literature Review, Comparison and Critical analysis of more than 25 Published Articles and other reviews. Author has chosen the Comparative Literature review as methodology for this research article. The purpose is to show that Randomly chosen articles are in favor to use Latest Medical Technology and taking benefits from technology to treat various medical diseases including COVID-19. SPSS 19 software is used to show Diagrammatic presentation for the results and analysis (Table 1).

Recently the increased TB Siddiqui [12] morbidity and mortality have placed additional pressure to act on state and local TB control programs which already had been substantially weakened by inadequate staffing and funding support. Treatment Muhammad [13] success rate of 67.8% among new and retreatment PTB patients and 69% in new smear positive PTB patients was observed. Sputum positivity at 2 months AOR 13.78; 95% CI 5.09-37.26 was a significant predictor of poor treatment outcomes in new smear positive PTB patients. The treatment success rate among PTB patients was lower than the recommended 85% success rate. TB patients at higher risk of unsuccessful treatment outcomes should be provided with enhanced supervision and treatment monitoring to improve the Muhammad [13] success rate of TB management in Pakistan.

This essay has explored the Ahsan [14] Avian-bird flu in terms of definition classification signs and symptoms caused by Avian flu statistics of morbidity and mortality. I also discuss the some of the actions taken by the UK government to prevent the population of the UK from harmful effects of the Avian flu. This essay tells the dangers and the harmful effects done by the Avian flu and how this deadly disease spread in the communities silently and the health departments. When it comes to know about this disease how it kills the innocent people Ahsan [14] and terrorizes the whole community by its deadly results Measure and statistical Analysis: IBM SPSS Software USA [15]; (Figure 3); (Figure 4).

RESULTS

Author of this Article has used SPSS 19 Software to present the results. First SPSS Diagram shows that All selected 15 Articles favors the Importance of the use of Latest Medical Technology and taking benefits from technology to treat various medical diseases including COVID-19 in the current Pandemic. The Second SPSS Diagram shows that 15 Articles agreed 100% for the Importance of the use of Latest Medical Technology and taking benefits from technology to treat various medical diseases including COVID-19 in the current Pandemic

Obstructive sleep John [16] apnea is more prevalent in patients with hypertension than in the general population and many with obstructive sleep apnea also have hypertension. Obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of hypertension-related morbidities such as stroke heart failure and premature death. Are such associations coincidental or causal and if the latter what are their implications for clinical practice? Despite compelling epidemiological and mechanistic links between obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension the effect in clinical trials of the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea on John [16] blood pressure has been modest and variable. The study results revealed a positive association between longer duration of hypertension and presence of sleep Anwar [17] apnea albeit only before controlling for the potential confounding effects of age.

To assess the Momin [18] correlation of temperature with platelet count and total leukocyte count in patients of dengue fever. In patients with fever duration of 5 to 7 days it was significantly negatively correlated with platelet count on day 3 only (p=0.002) whereas in patients aged 40 years or above it was significantly negatively correlated Momin [18] with total leukocyte count on day 3 only (p=0.025). According to our study no Jamali [19] correlation exists between hemoglobin and hematocrit with cord clamping time, but weak positive correlation was observed between bilirubin levels with clamping time in seconds.

To determine the Natasha [9] association of neurological symptoms with blood pressure levels in hypertensive patients. Vertigo and confusion were signifi¬cantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure level whereas none of them were significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure level. Moreover, the binary logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for the confounding effects of other neurological symptoms only confusion was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure level whereas none of the neurological symptoms studied was significantly Natasha [9] associated with diastolic blood pressure level.

Hypertension has been Cinzia [20] identified as one of the most important factors of chronic transformation of episodic migraine and increases the cerebrovascular and cardiovascular risk of migraine patients. Migraine and arterial hypertension may share common mechanisms like endothelial dysfunction deficiency of autonomic cardiovascular regulation and renin angiotensin system involvement. Preventive effects of migraine were described by several antihypertensive agents traditionally beta-blockers and more recently Cinzia [20] angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers.

DISCUSSION

The present study predicted Jamali [21] that no correlation in either group existed between hemoglobin hematocrit and bilirubin with increasing cord clamping time. Group 1 had clamping time of 45±7.92 seconds and group 2 with clamping time of 118±33.26 seconds. Hemoglobin was 13.29±1.33 mg/dl in group 1 and 13.43±1.06 in group 2. Hematocrit was 40.87±3.78 % and 41.36±3.02% in group 1 and 2 respectively. Bilirubin (mg/dl) was 9.15±5.77 in group 1 while 13.14±10.14 in group 2. Anemia was present in 7.1% and 2.9% of infants in group 1 and respectively. High bilirubin was seen in 4.1% and 19.4% Jamali [21] infants of group 1 and 2 respectively (Figure 5).

Despite vast improvements in treatment Elias [22] of Philadelphia chromosome–positive chronic myeloid leukemia-CML in chronic phase CP advanced stages of CML accelerated phase or blast crisis, remain notoriously difficult to treat. Treatments that are highly effective against CML-CP produce disappointing results against advanced disease. Therefore, a primary goal of therapy should be to maintain patients in CP for as long as possible by striving for deep early molecular response to treatment using tyrosine kinase inhibitors that lower risk of disease progression and Elias [22] more closely observing patients who demonstrate cytogenetic risk factors at diagnosis or during treatment. The present study predicted Amna [23] that considerable difference did not exist in various hematological parameters of male and female CML patients. However, myelocyte count (%) in males and females was 13.87±7.49 and 12.50 whilst 18.65±7.49 and 18.0 respectively. Treatment related diarrhea Dang [24] is one of the most common and troublesome adverse effects related to chemotherapy or radiotherapy in people with cancer. Its reported incidence has been as high as 50% to 80%. Severe treatment‐related diarrhea can lead to fluid and electrolyte losses and nutritional deficiencies and could adversely affect quality of life-QoL. It is also associated with increased risk of infection in people with neutropenia due to anticancer therapy and often leads to treatment Dang [24] delays dose reductions or treatment discontinuation. Probiotics may be effective in preventing or treating chemotherapy‐ or radiotherapy‐ induced diarrhea. Our study demonstrates Reena [25] that electrolyte imbalances are common during chemotherapy and monitoring should be done by medical oncologist so to avoid future morbidity and mortality.

The present study predicted the Shahzain [26] median age of 40.29 years in patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia. TLC was observed to be 228.7±152.3x103cells/mm3 though platelet count was 466.9±305.09x103cells/mm3. Moreover, no correlation existed between age and various hematological parameters in these patients. The frontline management of chronic myelogenous Pavan [27] leukemia-CML imatinib has proven to be very effective in achieving high remission rates and improving prognosis. However, up to 33% of patients will not achieve optimal response. This has led researchers to develop new second- and third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In this article we review the mechanisms of resistance recommendations for monitoring assessment of milestones and management options for patients with Pavan [27] CML who are resistant to imatinib therapy.

Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia Yasunori [28] is a common complication in cancer treatment. We analyzed the incidence and clinical features of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in patients with gynecologic malignancy. During the study period, we administered over 1614 infusions 29 regimens to 291 patients. The median age of the patients was 60 years range 24–84 years. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia occurred in 147 (50.5%) patients over 378 (23.4%) chemotherapy cycles. Yasunori [28] Febrile neutropenia occurred in 20 (6.9%) patients over 25 (1.5%) cycles. The mean duration of neutropenia and fever was 3.6 days range 1–12 days and 3.4 days range 1-9 days respectively. Our study showed that significant difference exists in some of the hematological parameters including hemoglobin levels platelet count total leukocyte count neutrophil count monocyte count and absolute neutrophil count in patient treat with different chemotherapeutic drugs suffering from febrile neutropenia.

This research design assignment Ahsan [29] has explored the methodological issues relating to the research question about how to improve the health infrastructure and the health system in Pakistan and how to reduce the incidence of tuberculosis in adults in Karachi Pakistan. Finally, the chosen method (Diaries, Interviews with Data collection and analysis) enables me to explain the chosen Ahsan [30] research question and give the answers and the solutions of the problems. Pakistan ranks fifth amongst the highest TB burden countries and poses a rich ground for exploratory research to address the gender differences in TB cases. It is uniquely neighbored by India on the East having higher number of cases in males than in females and by Afghanistan and Omara [31] Iran on the West having higher number of cases in females than in males (Figure 6).

To compare the prevalence Adnan [32] of clinical signs and symptoms of hypertension among different gender and age-based groups of hypertensive patients. Blood pressure was measured using sphygmomanometer with stethoscope. With the release Lindsey [33] of the 2017 Hypertension Clinical Guidelines 46% of adults in the United States are now classified as hypertensive and hypertension is the primary modifiable risk factor for the development of CVD. This increase in the prevalence of hypertension is reflected in an increase in prevalence among both men and women across all demographics although there were greater increases in the prevalence of hypertension among men compared with women. As a result, the well-established gender difference in the prevalence of hypertension Lindsey [33] is even more pronounced and now extends into the sixth decade of life.

This work aimed to characterize Adetunji [34] and quantify the nanoscale particles emitted by a typical heavy-duty industrial photocopier and printer to assess the long-term effect of these particles on occupational health. The potential Adetunji [34] health risk related to toner particles is also explored. Photocopier machines Kasi [35] are inevitable office equipment but they are also sources of air pollution.

Literature Review Siddiqui [36] with Health Need Assessment and Planning - Planning Models were Applied to discuss and Critically Analyze the NTP National Tuberculosis control program of Pakistan. They are getting also more funds and aid for NTP to Siddiqui [36] control the T.B in Pakistan. Monitoring tuberculosis treatment Zainab [37] outcomes and understanding the reasons for unsuccessful treatment are important indicators for evaluating the performance of the national tuberculosis control program. The treatment success rate among PTB patients was lower than the recommended 85% success rate. TB patients at higher risk of unsuccessful treatment outcomes should be provided with enhanced supervision and Zainab [38] treatment monitoring to improve the success rate of TB management in Pakistan [39-42].

CONCLUSION

Latest Inventions in Science and Medical Technology are Blessing for all the Living being on this Planet Earth. From Human beings to Animals all are getting benefits to enjoy better health in twenty first century by modern treatment and surgical procedures for humans and Animals. The Human Doctor and Veterinary Doctor are getting modern medicines and technology to save the lives of their patients. Latest Medical Inventions for example Nuclear Medicine/ Nuclear scan, CT Scan, MRI Scan, Laparoscope Machine, Imaging Machine, Ultrasound, X Rays, ICU Facility with Ventilators, Endoscopy Instruments, Others are helping the Doctors and Patients to provide and receive latest Treatment for the ill and sick. Although the Advancement in Medical Technology and Sciences still a lot of Research and hard work needed as still scientists could not find the appropriate and proven treatment and Vaccine of COVID-19.

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Article Type

Research Article

Publication history

Received date: June 18, 2020
Published date: July 02, 2020

Address for correspondence

Ahsan Ali Siddiqui, MD, MSPH, UK, Consultant Public Health, Quality Management & Patient Safety Department, General Directorate of Health, Saudi Arabia

Copyright

©2020 Open Access Journal of Biomedical Science, All rights reserved. No part of this content may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means as per the standard guidelines of fair use. Open Access Journal of Biomedical Science is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

How to cite this article

Ahsan Ali Siddiqui, MD, MSPH, UK. The Use of Latest Medical Technology and Taking Benefits from Technology to Treat Various Medical Diseases Including Covid-19 in the Current Pandemic. 2020 - 2(4) OAJBS.ID.000185.

Author Info

Ahsan Ali Siddiqui*, MD, MSPH, UK

Consultant Public Health, Quality Management & Patient Safety Department, General Directorate of Health, Saudi Arabia

Figure 1:COVID-19 virus [38].

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Figure 2:[COVID-19 vaccines [39].

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Figure 3:

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Figure 4:

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Figure 5:Chronic myeloid leukemia [41].

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Figure 6:Tuberculosis treatment [42].

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Table 1: 15 Selected articles to show the importance of use of Latest Medical Technology and taking benefits from technology to treat various medical diseases including COVID-19.

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